Lots of good comments! I do think it is a bit of stretch to include a jointer and surface planner on the ‘basics’ list – we’ve got a slippery slope here! And a lot of different approaches – money, space, time, resources, etc. But lets plunge ahead. If you buy your wood already (or mostly) prep’ed, then the jointer & surface planner can be postponed. You definitely need a way to accurately measure linear distances (e.g. length, width) so a good ruler and tape measure. You need to be able to measure squareness – so you need a good combination square. You need to be able to mark the wood – so a good marking knife, an awl, some chalk, a fine pencil, etc. You should have some decent chisels (and good ones don’t need to cost a lot!). You will need to sharpen them (again not expensive – piece of plate glass and some sandpaper). You need a way to accurately cut your wood – a couple of good handsaws and a file or two for sharpening. You really should have a decent work surface/work bench/etc – a good first project by the way. Last of the basics – a good drill (3/8″ vs battery type). Lastly (I could go on but room is lacking), take a look at Paul Seller’s video’s for simple but highly competent work.
While flipping through the boards, keep an eye open for signs that a number of boards may have come from the same tree. Looking at the ends and the growth rings will tell you where in the log the board was sawn. In some cases, knots may go through more than one board, and often the outer boards have a live edge. By comparing these features, the colouring, grain and other distinguishing marks, it is often possible to identify several boards cut from the same log.
Afrormosia Alder Andiroba Anigre Ash Apple Aspen Avodire Balsa Beech Bilinga Birch African Blackwood Australian Blackwood Boxwood Bubinga Camphor Cedrela Cherry Chestnut Cocobolo Cumaru Ebony Elm Eucalyptus Hazel Hickory Hornbeam Idigbo Imbuia Ipê Iroko Jarra Jelutong Lignum vitae Linden (lime, basswood) Merbau Mahogany (American, African) Maple Meranti Oak Padauk Pear Plum Poplar Purpleheart Ovankol Ramin Red Quebracho Rosewood Rubberwood Sapele Teak Totara Utile Walnut Wenge Willow Zebrano
“Basic,” on the other hand, is a word that allows for growth – and that’s exactly what you want in your woodworking tool kit. You want to be able to take the same kit with you through many years in the craft. With my basic woodworking tools list, I wanted to provide a core set of tools that will serve you well from project to project. I’m especially concerned these days with the transition to hardwood furniture making, as opposed to plywood boxes of various sizes. That’s the transition I’m making right now in my own work!
The lumber industry uses the “Janka hardness test” to test and rate common woods for hardness. The test involves pressing a steel ball to gauge how much pressure each wood species takes to push the ball half way into the wood. You can download my free PDF of the Janka chart here. {If you can’t open a PDF then install the free Adobe PDF Reader here.}

After they get empty, we remain no longer concerned with those wooden barrels! If you are having some long-forgotten wooden barrels they time to plan them for restoring living room fashion points! Here is way to convert an old barrel into a stunning coffee table that will also provide a secrete stash as you can see here! Perfect gift for rustic-modern lovers! Here is how to make it artofmanliness
The joiner is one of the oldest professions in the world, for centuries the wood masters have turned this fantastic material in artefacts that amazed people, functional furniture and other amazing creations. There still are craftdevicessmen and makers who continue this activity, renewing it and processing it to obtain better results and artifacts, with the help of woodworking machines, including SCM Classical machines that are distinguished by their excellent quality, precision and absolute security, allowing even less experienced hobbyists to obtain excellent results with no danger.
Using wood glue and 1 1/4" pocket hole screws, attach the frame you just built (36" x 11") to the 4x4 frame posts. You will use the pocket holes you drilled in the 36" boards. The frame will sit on the edge of the grooves, not inside. See plans for details. The frame should sit flush with the tops of your 4x4's. This will make the bottom 4" off the ground.
Convert your Delta Midi-Lathe to a full size Convert your Delta Midi-Lathe to a full size lathe by adding the Delta Midi Lathe Bed Extension. Featuring a modular design so you can connect multiple extensions this extension increases bed length by 25-1/2 in. so you can turn longer spindles. To reduce vibration add 34 lbs. of cast iron ...  More + Product Details Close
While this coffee table instruction is free, I'm trying to make a living with these. I care about the quality of each piece and a lot of work went into designing the pieces and making the instructions so unfortunately I have to ask a little money for the other instructions. However when put into the perspective of a whole DIY furniture project I guess it shouldn't make that big of dent in your budget.
Liz Fourez started Love Grows Wild in 2012 with a passion for interior design and homemaking and a dream to help others create a home they love.  From simple project tutorials, to holiday and entertaining ideas, to her journey renovating a 1940’s farmhouse, Liz demonstrates how to create a beautiful and inviting home with a handmade touch. She turned her signature cozy, neutral style into a best-selling book in 2016 and continues to inspire readers with her captivating photography and easy decorating ideas. Read more about Liz > > > >
Carpenters craft structures and products from wood, steel, fiberglass and other materials. There are different types of carpenters, including residential, industrial and commercial carpenters. Residential carpenters may build new homes or do remodeling work, building structures like walls, stairways, floors, roofs and decks. Commercial carpenters, who may construct schools, malls and hospitals, use many of the same skills, but they may work more with concrete and steel. Industrial carpenters build infrastructure like tunnels, sewers and dams.
This project, as with other Buildeazy projects, is designed with the home handyman or DIYer in mind. Joints that might require the expertise of a more seasoned woodworker are non-existent. Instead, all joints are secured with bolts and/or screws and maybe a bit of glue. Because of this, the project only requires the most basic of tools to undertake a professional job, but does not lack in strength.
Liz Fourez started Love Grows Wild in 2012 with a passion for interior design and homemaking and a dream to help others create a home they love.  From simple project tutorials, to holiday and entertaining ideas, to her journey renovating a 1940’s farmhouse, Liz demonstrates how to create a beautiful and inviting home with a handmade touch. She turned her signature cozy, neutral style into a best-selling book in 2016 and continues to inspire readers with her captivating photography and easy decorating ideas. Read more about Liz > > > >
Often referred to as Douglas Fir, this wood has a straight, pronounced grain, and has a reddish brown tint to it. Fir is most often used for building; however, it’s inexpensive and can be used for some furniture-making as well. It doesn’t have the most interesting grain pattern and doesn’t take stain very well, so it’s best to use it only when you intend to paint the finished product. Douglas fir is moderately strong and hard for a softwood, rating 4 on a scale of 1 to 4.
Just a little nitpick on the tape measure blurb. The hook should not be completely tight. It should move in and out about a 1/16th or the thickness of the hook. This way you get an accurate measurement whether you hook a part to measure or bump up to it. If you want more accurate measurements with a tape measure, “burn” an inch instead of hooking or bumping the part. Just line up what you want to measure with the 1″ mark and subtract that inch from the final measurement.
I’d like to add some type of sharpening system to your list. A simple sandpaper and slab system, stones, or the more expensive slow grinder system. Although listed, files should be in this sharpening/maintenance category as well. You’ll need these as soon as you purchase a majority of hand tools. They’ll be needed throughout each day of using the tools. Initial setup and routine maintenance will give better results with less fighting the grain and tool. Whether your a beginner or a master, the tools must be sharp and maintained.
I built my coffee table!! I used the plans at www. EasyWoodwork.org to build mine – highly recommended you check those out too. They are detailed and super easy to read and understand unlike several others I found online. The amount of plans there is mind-boggling… there’s like 16,000 plans or something like that for tons of different projects. Definitely enough to keep me busy with projects for many more years to come haha

After they get empty, we remain no longer concerned with those wooden barrels! If you are having some long-forgotten wooden barrels they time to plan them for restoring living room fashion points! Here is way to convert an old barrel into a stunning coffee table that will also provide a secrete stash as you can see here! Perfect gift for rustic-modern lovers! Here is how to make it artofmanliness


This project, as with other Buildeazy projects, is designed with the home handyman or DIYer in mind. Joints that might require the expertise of a more seasoned woodworker are non-existent. Instead, all joints are secured with bolts and/or screws and maybe a bit of glue. Because of this, the project only requires the most basic of tools to undertake a professional job, but does not lack in strength.
Even if you are using a beautiful (yet unstable) grain pattern on part of your furniture, it’s a good idea to use stable wood on the other parts. For example, look at an old wooden door. The panels usually have more decorative (less stable) wood, but the rails and stiles (parts of the frame) are usually very stable straight grained wood (don’t worry, I’ll clarify “straight grain” below).
If you have ever thought of building something from all those wooden pallets you see laying around, well take a look at what Norm put together in this coffee table. Rustic indeed, no two tables will look alike. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the techniques needed to build such a project and how to work with the material. View the Larger Image Slideshow to see the actual paper plan you are buying.
I needed a new coffee table for the living room and this design fit the bill perfectly. I came across a table from Ana-White.com that I loved, but modified it a bit because I wanted a breadboard style top. To see her plans click here. The difference between the table in this post is that I cut the top pieces to 41″ (vs 52″) and added the 2×6 pieces to each end, making it come to 52″ with a breadboard style top.
I’m currently working on a dining room table with this color in mind (I also plan on a coffee table soon). I’ve been testing out stain colors and dark walnut is currently in the lead. I love the way this coffee table turned out in color. How many coats of stain did you use? Also, did the dark wax make a big difference in color? I was planning on using a satin poly for sealant (mostly because it’s what is most convenient and what I’m accustomed to), but I’m interested in the dark wax after seeing this post. Any recommendations you have are much appreciated.

In the sixty years of woodworking I have found two tools of increasing necessity. One is a band saw. I can do most of my work with a band saw and hand plane. The second tool is a bow saw, or actually several bow saws. They will replace the band saw if required, though they are slow. One I made about twenty years ago has a one and a half inch wide rip blade and is about thirty inches long. I think the blade is from an old industrial band saw blade I picked up and sharpened into a rip saw blade. It works very well on ripping lumber, logs, etc. Though it tires me out to much to use it now.
An associate's degree program can be very valuable if your ultimate goals extend to working in management since many leadership roles require a degree credential in a related field. However, if you are more interested in the hands-on aspect of the profession, then a diploma or certificate program can provide the technical knowledge needed to meet the demands of the job.
This course introduces students to the craft of creating custom built cabinetry through practical application and classroom instruction. Students begin by learning how to design and build basic box cabinets. Other topics include standard cabinet sizes and specifications, types of lumber and sheet material, basic terminology, joinery techniques and safety operations. Students work on their own or with others to create a variety of projects such as kitchen cabinets, built-in shelves or closet storage units.
Wow, what a great problem to have Boris! If you can send some photos I’ll look at them. But unseen, I’d ask them to try to get some quartersawn boards out, and also some full width flatsawn boards. It just depends on how much wood you’ll get if you quartersaw it. It also depends on what you think you’ll build down the road. Some furniture pieces don’t need to be quite as stable as others. Good luck! 

I’d like to add some type of sharpening system to your list. A simple sandpaper and slab system, stones, or the more expensive slow grinder system. Although listed, files should be in this sharpening/maintenance category as well. You’ll need these as soon as you purchase a majority of hand tools. They’ll be needed throughout each day of using the tools. Initial setup and routine maintenance will give better results with less fighting the grain and tool. Whether your a beginner or a master, the tools must be sharp and maintained.
As with most websites, we do log web visits. This information, however, does not have a link to you personally. These logs help us understand the needs of our audience and the areas of our site that you do or do not find useful. When you simply browse our site, no personal information is being collected.  We may disclose this non-personal information to third parties such as sponsors, clients or advertisers.
Even though this is in fact a side table, we can definitely find inspiration in its design. We find this project to be highly creative and interesting. The table has a hexagon-shaped top and bottom connected by two sets of five rods. Two in each set are longer than the other and go through the bottom hexagon, acting as legs. You can find the plans for this project on ohohblog.
All Alison courses are free to enrol, study and complete. To successfully complete this Diploma course and become an Alison Graduate, you need to achieve 80% or higher in each course assessment. Once you have completed this Diploma course, you have the option to acquire official Certification, which is a great way to share your achievement with the world. Your Alison Certification is:
You will perfect your marking, cutting and chiseling skills by making a series of common woodwork joints each joint being that little bit more difficult than the last. These skills will come in for later during the course when you will be required to chop in hinges using a chisel into a door and door frame plus build a door frame with a half lap joint.
We really like the distressed look on this coffee table. There are a few ways in which you can achieve that. You can use reclaimed wood or you can create the antiqued finish artificially using special techniques. You can analyze the plans and the instructions shared on instructables to find out more about this strategy. They also show you how to build this stylish pinstripe table.
If creating the coffee table precedes the actual design phase of your interior space, take into consideration future positioning, size and functionality that will determine the addition of storage space.Personalize each piece created from the free coffee table plans featured above and claim it your own. Choose a fun bright tone or paint it Scandinavian white for a calming relaxing effect.Simply fallow the tutorials above and design your perfect coffee table today.
If creating the coffee table precedes the actual design phase of your interior space, take into consideration future positioning, size and functionality that will determine the addition of storage space.Personalize each piece created from the free coffee table plans featured above and claim it your own. Choose a fun bright tone or paint it Scandinavian white for a calming relaxing effect.Simply fallow the tutorials above and design your perfect coffee table today.
Rip your 1x4's so they are 3" wide. This should make them nice and square, so they fit together without any gaps or rounded edges. Drill pocket holes in both ends of each board. Drill several pocket holes (3 or 4) on the edges of each board. Spread wood glue on the edges of each board, and sandwich them together, using bar clamps to keep them tight. Using 1 1/4" pocket hole screws, attach the 1x4's together. (see photo on next step)
Concrete has been deliberated a building material for a pretty long time and not a finishing choice. On the other hand, with the style taking like industrial and attaining territory concrete tables are pretty in and chic in these days. The best and fundamental feature of a concrete table is the skill to create one yourself easily by the following a few easy steps.
In general, you can expect to spend three to four years obtaining a combination of classroom and on-the-job training in order to become a carpenter. While you won't technically be considered a carpenter until reaching journeyworker status at the end of the training period, you will have the opportunity to pursue a paid position in the field for the duration of your training. Compared to the amount of time it takes to learn how to be an electrician, and training for some other trades, the length of time it takes to get journeyworker status as a carpenter is relatively reasonable.

Treeline offers only the finest wood carving tools and supplies. Everything from Treeline is backed by our 30-day guarantee against any defects. We have been providing wood carving tools since 1997 and we strive to excel in customer service and quality products. All employees at Treeline are very knowledgeable and professional, so if you are looking for the right woodcarving tools, contact us and we will do our best to help you.

I want to make some wooden boxes and cases, and I haven't done any wood work till now so I don't have any tools and I can't buy the workshop electronic machines which I see in almost every woodworking instructables here (such as drill, lathe, sanding, saw, mitre, buiskit jointer, and all other electronic tools). So I want to begin with simple hand tools.
Teak is becoming rarer as the days go on, but it is the staple for fine outdoor furniture. Teak is highly weather-resistant and beautiful (not to mention expensive — can you believe almost $24 a board foot?). Teak has an oily feel and a golden-brown color. It rates a 3 on a scale of 1 to 5 for hardness and is only available from larger lumberyards and specialty suppliers.
The most commonly purchased claw hammer is the 20 oz. size. It’s heavy enough to easily drive nails but easily manipulated when pulling nails. While wooden handles are picturesque, they may not stand up to the strain if you have to pull a lot of nails. Hammers with a steel handle, or even fiberglass, will be stronger. However, these won’t absorb the vibrations from driving nails the way a hickory handle will. You’ll also need to make sure the fiberglass and metal handles have a rubberized grip for control and comfort. If you’re going to be driving a lot of nails, the wooden handled hammer will be better for reducing stress on your hand, and wrist, too.
Loveland, CO (population: 68,614) has four carpentry schools within a 100-mile radius of its city center. Emily Griffith Opportunity School, the highest ranked school in this group with a carpentry program, has a total student population of 2,230. It is the 2063rd highest ranked school in the USA and the 22nd highest in the state of Colorado (#1 is Colorado College).
Cherry is a very popular and all-around great wood; easy to work with, stains and finishes well with just oil, and ages beautifully. Cherry’s heartwood has a reddish-brown color to it and the sapwood is almost white. Cherry has a hardness of 2 on a scale of 1 to 5. This is a very common wood for furniture-making and is available from sustainably grown forests. You won’t find cherry at your local home center, so a trip to the lumberyard is necessary if you want to use it. Because it’s in demand, cherry is getting somewhat expensive compared to other domestic hardwoods, such as oak and maple.
Fill all holes with wood filler and let dry. Apply additional coats of wood filler as needed. When wood filler is completely dry, sand the project in the direction of the wood grain with 120 grit sandpaper. Vacuum sanded project to remove sanding residue. Remove all sanding residue on work surfaces as well. Wipe project clean with damp cloth. It is always recommended to apply a test coat on a hidden area or scrap piece to ensure color evenness and adhesion. Use primer or wood conditioner as needed.
Now, I know this list only contains traditional hand tools, but my circumstances led me to this choice to complete the job. After all, he is my brother and he’s helped me once or twice. Not all woodworkers will want to take the time and effort to go strictly with hand tools. That’s fine; different circumstances and preferences will lead the way. Most people wouldn’t drive a scooter full of tools to assist their siblings either. Sounds crazy, but I enjoyed the trip through the mountains. Once I was there, I still needed a way to rip through lumber. I also needed a can of finish. As needed, a few jigs and templates were constructed from the purchased lumber.

In general, you can expect to spend three to four years obtaining a combination of classroom and on-the-job training in order to become a carpenter. While you won't technically be considered a carpenter until reaching journeyworker status at the end of the training period, you will have the opportunity to pursue a paid position in the field for the duration of your training. Compared to the amount of time it takes to learn how to be an electrician, and training for some other trades, the length of time it takes to get journeyworker status as a carpenter is relatively reasonable.


I work with a lot of rough sawn boards (Wood Mizer) that are up to 12 inches wide. The worse defect is twist. First I saw the stock to rough project lengths and then using winding sticks, I attack the twist with a #5 hand plane, gradually moving the winding sticks toward the center. If there is bow or cup I can plane that out also. I now have a reference surface that can go thru my planer. The finished boards are perfect. This is not really difficult or excessively time consuming.
I just moved overseas and had to give up all of my power tools due to space limitations and power incompatibility. Upon arrival the first power tool that I bought was a cordless drill/driver and the second was a circular saw. I then modified the saw to improve its performance for cabinet quality work by putting a zero clearance baseplate (just a piece of 1/4″ plywood screwed to the base) this allows the saw to cut plywood panels without tearing up the edges. I also bought a length of aluminum rectangle tube stock for a straight edge. Together the straight edge and the zero clearance baseplate makes the circular saw a fairly accurate tool for plywood construction projects. It’s not as easy to use as a Festool track saw but it cuts almost as clean and cost about 1/5th the price.
Liz Fourez started Love Grows Wild in 2012 with a passion for interior design and homemaking and a dream to help others create a home they love.  From simple project tutorials, to holiday and entertaining ideas, to her journey renovating a 1940’s farmhouse, Liz demonstrates how to create a beautiful and inviting home with a handmade touch. She turned her signature cozy, neutral style into a best-selling book in 2016 and continues to inspire readers with her captivating photography and easy decorating ideas. Read more about Liz > > > >
Even after you've applied your chosen finish, wood will continue to move. As the wood absorbs and loses moisture from one season to the next, components can twist and bind. For example, a tall cabinet door with glass panels that I built several years ago tends to curve from top to bottom every time the moisture content in the air goes up. The rails and stiles on the door are quite narrow, so I should have chosen straighter-grained stock when originally selecting my lumber.
For someone just beginning to purchase hardwood lumber, lumber grades can be overwhelming. Most lumber companies use the generally accepted grading rules set by the National Hardwood Lumber Association. Grades are based on the amount of usable clear material in a board. The highest grade boards are FAS and Select, followed by #1 Common and #2 Common. What grade you choose depends on your project. Some projects, such as tabletops and high quality furniture, may dictate the highest grade available. Many other projects are just as easily adapted to #1 Common (often referred to as cabinet grade) – kitchen cabinet doors, smaller projects and items where some character is acceptable.
Upcycling and recycling are our mottoes thus it is just natural for old door tables’ transformations to be a segment of a collection of our free point, particularly when this kind of crafts and projects have a reused material and sustainable side enriched by the passage of period. Old wooden door recycled into the table is a very good technique for beginners.
A robust media plan further supports Northwest Hardwood’s industry leadership position and further enhances the company’s presence in trade and design media and online spaces. In addition to the traditional customer base, Northwest Hardwoods will also reach architects and designers via a mix of print and digital advertising in publications such as Dwell, Architect Magazine, and Elle Décor. TWIST created a new tagline Keep Pioneering which plays off of the company’s Northwest roots.
There are no formal education or training requirements to become a carpenter in the U.S., but the BLS reports that three to four years of experience is the industry standard for becoming a skilled craftsperson. Training and experience can be acquired by working with an experienced journeyman or through an apprenticeship offered by an employer or labor union. Formal in-class instruction is offered through certificate, diploma or associate's degree programs in carpentry at trade or vocational schools. Employees with some formal carpentry education generally start at higher positions in the field. Carpentry courses may include carpentry math, building layouts, foundation work, roofing, stair construction, siding and moldings. You can also study interior and exterior finishes.

Hey Great Article,Thanks. 4 months ago, I started looking for woodworking.The industry is extremely interesting,but I have problems with how I can do it.My uncle who has been doing more than me in this industry,has suggested to me to follow Teds plans.Do you think it’s a good move to follow these plans??I keep reading good reviews about Teds plans but I am unsure if it will still work on me.At this time I can purchase these plans at a very low price,so if possible can you leave me feedback on wether I should do it or not. It would mean a lot coming from an expert in this field.
I want to make some wooden boxes and cases, and I haven't done any wood work till now so I don't have any tools and I can't buy the workshop electronic machines which I see in almost every woodworking instructables here (such as drill, lathe, sanding, saw, mitre, buiskit jointer, and all other electronic tools). So I want to begin with simple hand tools.

Even after you've applied your chosen finish, wood will continue to move. As the wood absorbs and loses moisture from one season to the next, components can twist and bind. For example, a tall cabinet door with glass panels that I built several years ago tends to curve from top to bottom every time the moisture content in the air goes up. The rails and stiles on the door are quite narrow, so I should have chosen straighter-grained stock when originally selecting my lumber.
We are all well aware of the role of a DIY coffee table for a living room which is highly versatile! It is what you need to get first while entertaining some visitors or guests in the living room! The conversations are also to start always by sitting around it! It is seen mostly in the center of the sitting plans! The reason is that all the sitting personages can use it to place their mobile phones, cups, beverage mugs, magazines and other materials over it while they need to get their hands free for the detailed conversations! So this all tells that how utilitarian item a coffee is!
The course was fantastic and exceeded my expectations so much that I then booked the second week plumbing course covering domestic hot water systems. Again the centre and staff were excellent and I then booked a third week to take advantage of their ‘4 for 3’ offer so I’ve now done the tiling and carpentry courses. All staff at Yta are so friendly and helpful and I will be recommending the courses to all my friends and family. I will definitely be returning to book more courses and that seemed to be the thinking of other students also. Fantastic training centre! I wish there was an option for more than 5 stars! They deserve it.

We have a bunch of other interesting designs to show you as well. Some, like this one, are meant to make the area around them feel inviting and cozy so the design is simple and familiar. These coffee table plans come from ana-white. You can make them your own by customizing certain aspects of the project. For instance, you could choose to paint the wood and then give it a distressed look instead of using wood stain.
India has a long history of fine hand made workmanship so you are in the right place for learning that, unless it has become a vanishing art. I would ask around and see if someone might be able to let you be around them and learn so you can get an idea of what is needed and also some of the tools you might need. Who knows, once you get involved you might decide you like it enough that you could apprentice with someone.
For someone just beginning to purchase hardwood lumber, lumber grades can be overwhelming. Most lumber companies use the generally accepted grading rules set by the National Hardwood Lumber Association. Grades are based on the amount of usable clear material in a board. The highest grade boards are FAS and Select, followed by #1 Common and #2 Common. What grade you choose depends on your project. Some projects, such as tabletops and high quality furniture, may dictate the highest grade available. Many other projects are just as easily adapted to #1 Common (often referred to as cabinet grade) – kitchen cabinet doors, smaller projects and items where some character is acceptable.
To us it is clear: Power, passion and conviction in the process of creation is what drives us and makes us so successful. The common objective is this, both today and for the future, to build the best woodworking machines with respect for our customers and for our environment. This is reinforced with each machine that leaves our factory in Hall in Tirol.
Our team at Hermance is seasoned in many years of experience and specially trained to ensure we're able to quickly assist you in finding the right product to meet your needs. In business for over 100 years, Hermance knows wood working equipment top to bottom. Check us out today and see why we're the top choice when it comes to new woodworking machinery. Contact us to learn more about our general woodworking machinery today.
Using wood glue and 1 1/4" pocket hole screws, attach the frame you just built (19" x 11") to the 4x4 frame posts. You will use the pocket holes you drilled in the 19" boards. The frame will sit on the edge of the grooves, not inside. See plans for details. The frame should sit flush with the tops of your 4x4's. This will make the bottom 4" off the ground.
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